Tuesday, May 26, 2015

2014 a record production year for the world's CANDU reactors

I saw this information posted by Morgan Brown of Canadian Nuclear Laboratories.
Data definitions move around from source to source, with different treatments of unit capacity and output. Brown has a preference for gross output and original gross capacity, which are not the metrics commonly seen by non-technical observers.

The conclusion, based on 2014 performance data for 19 operating CANDUs in Canada, and 12 international units, is a record for production from CANada Deuterium Uranium reactors (CANDU).

Here's how Ontario got down to 7 Mt CO2e in 2014 (see pg 8) from 154 TWh of generation.
2014 CANDU performance 
Only net output data is available from Bruce Power, so it was converted to gross power by an estimated net:gross conversion ration of 94.3%. All data below is gross TWhe, and the capacity factors are based on as-built capacity. 
An earlier graphic from Morgan Brown (data to 2013)
2014 saw an increase in the total output from Canadian power reactors, to the second-highest annual production of 104.6 TWhe, from 18 reactors operating in Ontario and one in New Brunswick. 
The 12 CANDUs at Bruce B, Darlington and Pickering B produced 70.54 TWhe in 2014, equivalent to a capacity factor (based on the original non-derated ratings) of 84.2%, down from the record high of 74.06 TWhe in 2012 (88.2%). These 12 reactors have been in operation together since June 1993, when the last Darlington unit was declared commercial. To Dec 31 2014 they are an average of 27.3 years old (21.5 to 31.6 years in commercial service); Bruce 5 is the top ranked CANDU for total commercial output, at 193.7 TWhe in its 28.7 year life. The total Ont generation was 99.52 TWhe, up from 95.79 TWhe in 2013. This is the highest ever Ontario generation (99.29 TWhe was the previous record, set in 1994).
The 19 operating Canadian reactors generated a total of 104.60 TWhe in 2014, with a fleet gross capacity factor of 79.8%. This is the second highest annual Canadian generation (110.65 TWhe in 1994, and 100.29 TWhe in 1995, when 22 reactors were operating.) 
There were 10 CANDU 6 reactors in operation in 2014, although Wolsong-1 continued to be shut because its licence expired in 2012 (the decision to re-licence was made in Feb 2015, and restart is scheduled for July 2015, to the best of my knowledge). The total 2014 CANDU output (worldwide) was 146.9 TWhe, exceeding the previous record of 146.0 TWhe in 2006. The total includes RAPS-2 in operation in India and KANUPP in Pakistan. RAPS-2 has been running at >80% since it was restarted in Sept 2009. KANUPP is limited in output to ~63% of original design output.
CANDUs are not the only deuterium uranium reactors, and Donald Jones reported India's CANDU cousins also had a strong 2014.  Jones also wrote on Ontario, and other CANDU 6, reactor performance for 2014.

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